RISE OF NADIR KULI 345 until it reached Hamadan, two hundred miles from the battlefield. Nadir's position must have been extremely critical after this disaster, but he rose to the occasion, and, instead of reproaching his soldiers, encouraged them by making good their losses and by every other means that was possible. So extraordinary were his personality and re- putation that recruits flocked in from every district of Persia, and in less than three months after his crushing defeat he was ready once again to take the field with a powerful and well-equipped army. The Persian Victory over Topal Osman> A.H. 1146 (1733).—The Turkish general after gaining this splendid victory became the victim of intrigues in Constantinople, as the result of which both pay and reinforcements for the army were withheld. Consequently he was in a position of marked inferiority at the opening of the new campaign. But he was no coward, and he sent his cavalry forward to meet the enemy at Leilan,1 near the Tigris. As in the previous battle, the Turks were unable to withstand the numerically stronger Persian mounted force, but on this occasion in their flight they swept away the infantry with them. Topal Osman, who was carried in a litter, was killed and the Turkish army was routed. After wiping out his defeat by this signal victory Nadir marched on Baghdad, but hearing of a revolt in Fars he made peace with Ahmad Pasha. He then, by a forced march, surprised the rebel Mohamed Khan Baluch, who was defeated and brought as a prisoner to Shiraz, where he committed suicide. The Persian Victory of Baghavand^ A.H. 1148 (1735). —The Sultan refused to ratify the treaty made by the Governor of Baghdad, and a fresh Turkish army was despatched under Abdulla Koprulu. Nadir immediately besieged Tiflis, Erivan, and Ganja with the design of forcing the Turkish leader to a general engagement. In this he was successful, as Abdulla, quitting his entrenched camp near Kars, advanced on Erivan at the head of 80,000 men, and attacked the Persians, who had 1 Both these battles were fought near Karkuk.